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History of Landscape

The history of landscape design begins not much later than the beginning of history of mankind. The starting point can be considered as the first arrangement of primitive man station. He reworked the landscape to fit his needs, mainly in defense against aggressive external environment, and this marked the beginning of landscape design in general and the utilitarian direction in it, in particular.The first gardens have appeared in place of the first cultural civilizations in Egypt and ancient Mesopotamia around XX-XV century BC. Gardens of Egypt were carried out in formal style and have a closed composition. In the centre of ensemble there has always been the main building, located among a large number of reservoirs, all elements of the garden – ponds, paths, flower beds, outdoor pavilions – were located in the subordination of certain rhythm. Egyptian garden was characterized by an organic fusion of religious, utilitarian and aesthetic functions.

In Persia and India landscape art got high level. The basis of their strictly geometrical plan was the so-called “chor-buck” – four squares. Alleys, lined with tiles, crossed at right angles, and the space between them filled with densely planted trees or has engaged in ponds and magnificent flower gardens. As a result large square divided into four smaller squares, and so on. This division of space was performed not only with paths, but also with plants and a large number of small channels with water. In the main and best part of the garden there were located trees and flowers of rare species, and especially popular old powerful shady plane trees, on their branches were arranged arbors.

Design of gardens and parks in ancient Greece differed considerably with freer layout and composition. It characterized with such objects landscaping, as Gerron (sacred groves), philosophical gardens and private gardens. Gerron had a memorial character: sculpture, architecture, forest sources. For the scientists created a philosophical conversation gardens. Town squares were ordinary plantings along the roads. Private gardens were utilitarian in nature, flowers were the main element in their landscaping. There has also been used terracing, planting the trees with flowers, arranged fountains. Hellenic Gardenstood out with its saturation – conglomeration of green mass, twisted ladders, a lot of decorative elements.

Landscaping art in ancient Rome truly bloomed till I in. BC for I in. AD. Here were held the following types of gardens: the sacred groves, community gardens, gardens with villas, gardens- hippodromes. To the scope of house were included courtyards, surrounded by a colonnade. They were decorated with flowers, shrubs, sculpture, supplied with water. Most gardens were arranged on terraced slopes, they were decorated with flowers, sculptures, architectural monuments and fountains. That time in the landscape design of Ancient Rome appeared pergolas and covered alleys, often has been used topiary art. At the turn of our era, a relative of the Emperor Augustus, Agrippa founded in Rome therms (sauna complexes) with gardens, built about 700 swimming pools, 500 fountains and aqueducts. Many techniques for regular gardens, parks, work with the land, plants and water designs originated in antiquity and are the basis for creating an artificial environment.

In the early Middle Ages, Europeans thoroughly forgot the traditions of ancient times, the appointment of the garden was very utilitarian – to serve the owners with food. Gardens were totally small, but at monasteries and some number of feudal lords, in the castles, hade wide gardens. In their gardens, for internal purposes, monks cultivated vegetables and herbs. Likewise, in the gardens have grown roses, hollyhocks, carnations, peonies, violets and lilies. Widely cultivated apple and pear trees to make cider, mulberry and cherry trees were planted only in the gardens of the nobility. Garden was mainly divided into four tracks. In the center on crossroad were planted shrub roses or set the cross of Jesus Christ.
Gardens were secluded, quiet, contemplative. In feudal gardens were planted flowers in the flowerbeds, arranged alleys, overgrown with vines, planted apple trees, arranged rosaries. Later, in big castles, were created large gardens called – Prato. Here too, there were decorative elements – pergolas, trellis, flower sites, ponds and fountains.

In the Muslim world, at this time, there was a cultural rising, many cities from India to Spain could be proud of their gardens. The concept of the Arab Spain garden is the simplicity of design and identity solutions. The main motive of the garden was water features. In the regular planning necessarily present the patio and arcades, exotic plants, which correspond to climatic conditions: tangerine, cypress, orange, oleander. They landed free, topiary basically not used. The lawn has not been used because of the hot climate, the area has been shaped decorative paving – is one of the highlights of Moorish garden.

In the XIV century cultural revival of landscape art began in Italy, this led to the beginning of forming of the Baroque style. This style is assumed that the garden should be a logical continuation of the palace – that is to have the rooms, corridors and appropriate luxurious decoration. Material costs for the device of the garden were comparable with the construction of the palace. The mountainous terrain supposed echelon of garden on the steep and high terraces.
The underlining of Architectural style of classical gardens of the Italian Baroque manifested in the use of contrasting topography, paved with slabs of paths and sites, in a variety of stone buildings: the high retaining walls, sculptures, pavilions, grottoes, balustrades, staircases.

The large number of decorative pools and various water attractions – cascades, channels, fountains and others, was also a necessary component of Baroque garden.
From the Italy Baroque migrated to France, where was founded the most significant object of the landscape art – Versailles near Paris, created by Andre Le Notre for the king Louis XIV. Since 20-ies of the XVI century, Versailles style became a model for imitation in the majority of European monarchs and their courtiers. Over the next 100 years foundation, created in Versailles, improved. Given direction to the development took shape in world-famous style – French classicism.
In the last decade of the XVIII century recent trends in British culture formed in a paysage style of landscape design. As the basis was chosen naturalness. Arranged meadows and lawns, planting trees – group, curved paths, free-shaped water reservoirs. There were widely used small architectural forms – arbors, pavilions, trellis.

At the beginning of XIX century appeared Victorian garden with symmetrical plantings of annuals, in which all other components were subordinated to the location of flowers. But in such a garden did not exist for a long time. The main contribution of the British in the development of landscape design – a lawn and a border of annual herbaceous plants.

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